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India, China Pushing For ‘Multiple Pathways’ to Net Zero

Indian government officials have revealed New Delhi is trying to win more support for alternative routes to a net zero future, which could even include using coal

Coal accounts for nearly three-fourths of India's annual electricity generation. Photo: Reuters
Coal accounts for nearly three-fourths of India's annual electricity generation. Photo: Reuters


India has reportedly won backing from China for a plan to persuade fellow G20 group nations to ditch deadlines for the end of fossil fuels use, and instead allow countries to choose their own route to carbon emissions reduction.

India, the current G20 president, is keen on introducing the phrase ‘multiple energy pathways’ in a communique to be released at a group summit in September, three Indian government officials have revealed, and has been supported by countries including China and South Africa.

Multiple pathways for energy transition would enable countries to choose resources, even coal, while working towards plans on net zero emissions.


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At a meeting of the G20 Energy Transitions Working Group (ETWG) in the western state of Gujarat last month, India opposed a deadline proposed by rich nations to end the use of coal, said the official who was at the meeting. 

Coal accounts for nearly three-fourths of India’s annual electricity generation, according to government data, and New Delhi has long defended its use of the fuel, citing lower emissions per capita, compared to other countries.

China supported India during the meeting, saying it cannot put a timeline on ending fossil fuel dependence and would want to put ‘all’ its available resources to optimum use, the official said.

The two countries are the top two consumers of coal in the world.

Climate ministers from the Group of Seven wealthy nations agreed last month “to accelerate the phase-out of unabated fossil fuels so as to achieve net zero in energy systems by 2050 at the latest”.

Officials said it was the first time India used the phrase ‘multiple pathways’ in global climate negotiations against repeated demands by Western nations to end coal usage.

A second official said the phrase is in conformity with the 2015 Paris Agreement on combating climate change that favours “common but differentiated responsibilities, under different national circumstances”. He said rich countries overlook this while asking for the exit from coal.

“A dominant view was seen emerging on every country to have individual pathways to achieve their national commitments and endowments,” a third official who attended the meeting said.


EU Fossil Fuel Phase-Out

Faced with calls to phase down the use of coal at the last climate change deliberations in Egypt in November 2022, India said all fossil fuels should be phased out including natural gas. 

At the G20 meeting last month, India kept the focus on fossil fuels, rather than singling out coal, the third official said.

India and China, the world’s two most populous countries, have often taken common positions at international climate change negotiations, despite long-standing border disputes.

In March, the European Union agreed to promote a global fossil fuel phase-out ahead of the COP28 summit in Dubai in November.

Delhi will host a summit of G20 leaders, including US President Joe Biden and Chinese President Xi Jinping, in September. Officials are meeting in the run-up to that meeting to finalise the group’s position on global issues including climate change.

The G20 includes the G7 countries as well as Russia, China, India, Brazil, Australia and Saudi Arabia, among other nations.


  • Reuters with additional editing by Sean O’Meara


Read more:

China ‘Needs to Fix its Electricity Grid, Not More Coal Power’

India Plans to Enforce Emergency Law to Ramp Up Coal Usage

China to Push Coal Back-Up Plan Ahead of Summer Energy Peak

Industries Switch to Biomass After New Delhi Bans Coal




Sean O'Meara

Sean O'Meara is an Editor at Asia Financial. He has been a newspaper man for more than 30 years, working at local, regional and national titles in the UK as a writer, sub-editor, page designer and print editor. A football, cricket and rugby fan, he has a particular interest in sports finance.


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